Acanthocheilonemiasis

Acanthocheilonemiasis

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important

It is possible that the main title of the report Acanthocheilonemiasis is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • Dipetalonemiasis
  • Dipetalonema perstans
  • Mansonella perstans
  • Acanthocheilonemiasis perstans

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Acanthocheilonemiasis is a rare tropical infectious disease caused by a parasite known as Acanthocheilonema perstans, which belongs to a group of parasitic diseases known as filarial diseases (nematode). This parasite is found, for the most part, in Africa. Symptoms of infection may include red, itchy skin (pruritis), abdominal and chest pain, muscular pain (myalgia), and areas of localized swelling (edema). In addition, the liver and spleen may become abnormally enlarged (hepatosplenomegaly). Laboratory testing may also reveal abnormally elevated levels of certain specialized white blood cells (eosinophilia). The parasite is transmitted through the bite of small flies (A. coliroides).

Symptoms

Initially people with Acanthocheilonemiasis may have no symptoms. Symptoms occur more frequently in people who visit the areas where this parasite is common (endemic), than in people who are native to that area. One common laboratory finding, in people who have recently returned from infected areas, is abnormally high levels of specialized white blood cells (eosinophilia). Generally there are no symptoms associated with the laboratory finding.



When symptoms appear they may include itchy skin (pruritis), abdominal pain, chest pain, muscle pains (myalgias), and/or areas of swelling under the skin (subcutaneous). Examination by a physician may reveal an abnormally enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), and abnormally high levels of granular white blood cells (eosinophilia). The adult worm (nematode) may lodge in the tissues of the abdomen and chest causing inflammation and immune reactions. This may result in inflammation of the lining of the lungs (pleuritis) and/or the membranes that surround the heart (pericarditis).



The early or prelarval form (microfilariae) of Acanthocheilonema perstans can be isolated from the blood from patients with Acanthocheilonemiasis. Generally this disease is diagnosed by the examination under a microscope of a thick blood smear taken from the patient.

Causes

Acanthocheilonemiasis is a rare infectious disease caused by long "thread-like" worms, Acanthocheilonema perstans, also known as Dipetalonema perstans. The disease is transmitted by a small black insect (midge), called A. Cailicoides.

Affected Populations

Acanthocheilonema perstans, the parasite that causes Acanthocheilonemiasis is common in central Africa and in some areas of South America. This disorder affects males and females in equal numbers.

Standard Therapies

Acanthocheilonemiasis is treated by means of the administration of antifilarial drugs, some of which are newer than others. Ivermectin or diethyl-carbamazine (DEC) are frequently prescribed. Occasionally, surgery may be required to remove large adult worms. Mild cases of acanthocheilonemiasis do not require treatment.

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.



For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:



Tollfree: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov



For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:

www.centerwatch.com



Research on tropical diseases is ongoing. The development of a vaccine is also being investigated. For more information on these disorders contact the World Health Organization (WHO) listed in the Resources section below.

References

TEXTBOOKS

Stein JH, Hutton JJ, Kohler PO, et al., eds. Internal Medicine. 4th ed. Mosby-Yearbook, Inc., St. Louis, MO. 1994:1966; 2280.



JOURNAL ARTICLES

Huynh T, Thean J, Maini R. Dipetalonema reconditum in the human eye. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1391-92.



Tripathi RP, Tripathi R, Bhaduri AP, et al. Antifilarial activity of some 2H-1-benzopyran-2-ones (coumarins). Acta Trop. 2000;76:101-06.



Zahner H, Schares G. Experimental chemotherapy of filariasis: comparative evaluation of the efficacy of filaricidal compounds in Mastomys coucha infected with Litomosoides carinii, Acanthocheilonema vitae, Brugia malaya and B. pahangi. Acta Trop. 1993;52:221-66.

Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

1600 Clifton Road NE

Atlanta, GA 30333

Tel: (404)639-3534

Tel: (800)232-4636

TDD: (888)232-6348

Email: cdcinfo@cdc.gov

Internet: http://www.cdc.gov/



NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Office of Communications and Government Relations

6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC 6612

Bethesda, MD 20892-6612

Tel: (301)496-5717

Fax: (301)402-3573

Tel: (866)284-4107

TDD: (800)877-8339

Email: ocpostoffice@niaid.nih.gov

Internet: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/



World Health Organization (WHO)

Avenue Appia 20

Geneva 27, 1211

Switzerland

Tel: 41227912111

Fax: 41227913111

Internet: http://www.who.int/en/



Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126

Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126

Tel: (301)251-4925

Fax: (301)251-4911

Tel: (888)205-2311

TDD: (888)205-3223

Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/



For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.

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