Chediak Higashi Syndrome

Chediak Higashi Syndrome

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important

It is possible that the main title of the report Chediak Higashi Syndrome is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • Begnez-Cesar's Syndrome
  • Chediak-Steinbrinck-Higashi Syndrome
  • CHS
  • Leukocytic Anomaly Albinism
  • Natural Killer Lymphocytes, Defect in
  • Oculocutaneous Albinism, Chediak-Higashi Type

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare, inherited, complex, immune disorder of childhood (usually) characterized by abnormally pale skin and eyes (oculocutaneous albinism). Because the patient's white blood cells (leukocytes) are profoundly affected, especially in their capacity to transport cellular proteins, immune disorders are common, along with an increased susceptibility to infections. In addition, CHS patients tend to bruise and bleed easily. Neurological deficits are also common.



CHS is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.

Symptoms

The symptoms of CHS are apparent during early infancy. The hair is typically blond or light brown with a silvery tint. Affected children may be abnormally sensitivity to light (photosensitivity) and exhibit rapid, involuntary, eye movements (nystagmus).



More important and more serious are the affects of CHS on the patient's immune and nervous systems.



Symptoms involving the nervous system include an unsteady posture and walk (ataxia) and lack of sensation in the arms and legs (peripheral neuropathy), leading to obvious signs of physical weakness and disability. Symptoms involving the immune system include a predisposition to bruising and bleeding (bleeding diathesis), susceptibility to recurrent infections and a tendency to develop a lymphoma-like malignancy of the blood.



Children with Chediak-Higashi syndrome often have abnormally low levels of white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytopenia) and may be susceptible to frequent bacterial and fungal infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and/or mucous membranes. These infections are frequently accompanied by abnormally high fever. Children with this disorder may bruise easily and tend to bleed excessively when injured. Organs of the body including the lungs, brain, kidneys, adrenal glands, and/or liver may have impaired function in some cases. Children with this disorder may be susceptible to cancers of the blood (leukemia) and lymphatic system (lymphoma).



Advanced symptoms of CHS may include general muscle weakness, poor growth, tingling or burning sensations in the arms and legs (peripheral neuropathy), the inability to coordinate movement (ataxia), skin ulcerations, an abnormally enlarged liver or spleen (hepatomegaly or splenomegaly), and/or enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy).

Causes

Chediak-Higashi syndrome is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. The responsible gene has been mapped to chromosomal locus 1q42.1-q42.2 and is known as CHS1.



The abnormal gene affects the "traffic patterns" of proteins within the cells. Proteins (or enzymes) that are meant to go from one part of the cell to another are either misdirected or fail to be transported.



For example, a granule in which the skin pigment (melanin) is made is interfered with so that the pigment cannot be transported to the appropriate skin cell. Similarly, a defect in the transport of part of a white blood cell (wbc) renders the cell helpless in killing infective agents like viruses or bacteria and causing the immune problems.



Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22 and the sex chromosomes are designated X and Y. Males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. Each chromosome has a short arm designated "p" and a long arm designated "q". Chromosomes are further sub-divided into many bands that are numbered. For example, "chromosome 1q42.1" refers to band 42.1 on the long arm of chromosome 1. The numbered bands specify the location of the thousands of genes that are present on each chromosome.



Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait which are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother.



Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.



All individuals carry 4-5 abnormal genes. Parents who are close relatives (consanguineous) have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.

Affected Populations

Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a very rare disorder that affects males and females in equal numbers. It is usually obvious at birth or shortly thereafter. There does not appear to be a higher risk for any particular ethnic or racial group.

Standard Therapies

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Chediak-Higashi syndrome is usually made on the basis of the presence of 'giant granules' in microscopic analysis of white blood cells and red blood cells. The diagnosis is confirmed by bone marrow smears that show 'giant inclusion bodies' in the cells that develop into white blood cells (leukocyte precursor cells).



CHS can be diagnosed in an unborn child (prenatally) by examining a sample of hair from a fetal scalp biopsy or testing white blood cells (leukocytes) from a fetal blood sample.



Treatment

Treatment of Chediak-Higashi syndrome is symptomatic. When bacterial or fungal infections occur, they should be vigorously treated with antibiotic or antifungal drugs. Acute viral infections may be treated with the anti-viral drug acyclovir and prednisone. Transfusions of white blood cells (leukocytes) may also be useful in treating some infections. Whole blood transfusions may be necessary if bleeding becomes excessive after injury or surgery. If a blood cancer (lymphoma) develops, standard cancer therapy (i.e., vincristine) is indicated depending on the type and location of the malignancy.



People with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome should avoid exposure to sunlight as much as possible. When affected individuals are exposed to sunlight, sunglasses and creams which contain sunscreens applied to the skin can be helpful. Genetic counseling may be of benefit for people with Chediak- Higashi Syndrome and their families.

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.



For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:



Tollfree: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov



For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:

www.centerwatch.com



Researchers are studying bone marrow transplantation from a compatible donor (allogenic) and non-compatible donors (non-allogenic) as a possible treatment for severe cases of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. In this procedure patients receive high doses of chemotherapy, followed by radiation therapy. Then donor bone marrow cells are given intravenously to the patient. It is hoped that this procedure may lead to the improvement of the blood abnormalities and immune deficiencies associated with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and other immune deficiency disorders such as Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. More study is needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of Chediak- Higashi Syndrome.

References

TEXTBOOKS

Boxer LA. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:379.



Frank MM, Austen KF, Claman HN, et al. Eds. Samter's Immunological Diseases. 5th ed. Little Brown and Company, Boston, MA; 1995:594-95.



REVIEW ARTICLES

Ward DM, Shiflett SL, Kaplan J. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: a clinical and molecular view of a rare lysosomal disorder. Curr Mol Med. 2002;2:469-77.



Shiflett SL, Kaplan J, Ward DM. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: a rare disorder of lysosomes and lysosome related organelles. Pigment Cell Res. 2002;15:251-57.



Huizing M, Anikster Y, Gahl WA. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and Chediak-Higashi syndrome: disorders of vesicle formation and trafficking. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:233-45.



Ward DM, Griffiths GM, Stinchcombe JC, et al. Analysis of the lysosomal storage disease Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Traffic. 2000;1:816-22.



JOURNAL ARTICLES

Yamazaki S, Takahashi H, Fujii H, et al. Split chimerism after allogenic bone marrow transplantation in Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003;31:137-40.



Shome DK, Al-Mukharraq H, Mahdi N, et al. Clinicopathological aspects of Chediak-Higashi syndrome in the accelerated phase. Saudi Med J. 2002;23:464-66.



Karim MA, Suzuki K, Fukai K, et al. Apparent genotype-phenotype correlation in childhood, adolescent, and adult Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2002;108:16-22.



Trigg ME, Schugar R. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: hematopoietic chimerism corrects genetic defect. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:1211-13.



Delcourt-Debruyne EM, Boutigny HR, Hildebrand HF. Features of severe periodontal disease in a teenager with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. J Periodontol. 2000;71:816-24.



Fukuda M, Morimoto T, Ishida Y, et al. Improvement of peripheral neuropathy with oral prednisolone in Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 2000;159:300-01.



FROM THE INTERNET

McKusick VA, Ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; CHS. Entry Number; 214500: Last Edit Date; 5/8/2002.



Brooks DG. Chediak-Higashi syndrome. In: Medical Encyclopedia. MEDLINEplus. Last Updated: 17 April 2003. 3pp.

www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001312.htm



Nowicki R, Szarmach H. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. eMedicine. Last Updated: June 2, 2003. 11pp.

www.emedicine.com/derm/topic704.htm



About CHS. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome Association. nd. var pp.

www.chediak-higashi.org/index2.html



Hermansky-Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi syndrome albinism. Keratin.com. nd. 3pp.

www.keratin.com/as/as019.shtml



Chediak-Higashi syndrome; clinical features; prognosis. nd. 3pp

www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=-502923227

www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=188022833&linkID=8906&cook=yes

www.gpnotebook.co.uk/simplepage.cfm?ID=-1550188482



Health On the Net Foundation. Last Modified: Mar 28 2003. 2pp.

www.hon.ch/cgi-bin/HONselect?browse+C15.378.553.774.257

Resources

National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation

PO Box 959

East Hempstead, NH 03826-0959

Tel: (603)887-2310

Fax: (800)648-2310

Tel: (800)473-2310

Email: noah@albinism.org

Internet: http://www.albinism.org



March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

1275 Mamaroneck Avenue

White Plains, NY 10605

Tel: (914)997-4488

Fax: (914)997-4763

Tel: (888)663-4637

Email: Askus@marchofdimes.com

Internet: http://www.marchofdimes.com



NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Office of Communications and Government Relations

6610 Rockledge Drive, MSC 6612

Bethesda, MD 20892-6612

Tel: (301)496-5717

Fax: (301)402-3573

Tel: (866)284-4107

TDD: (800)877-8339

Email: ocpostoffice@niaid.nih.gov

Internet: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/



International Patient Organization for Primary Immunodeficiencies

Firside Main Road

Downderry

Cornwall, PL11 3LE

United Kingdom

Tel: 441503250668

Fax: 441503250961

Email: info@ipopi.org

Internet: http://www.ipopi.org/



Jeffrey Modell Foundation

780 Third Avenue

New York, NY 10017

USA

Tel: (212)819-0200

Fax: (212)764-4180

Tel: (866)469-6474

Email: info@jmfworld.org

Internet: http://www.info4pi.org



Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126

Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126

Tel: (301)251-4925

Fax: (301)251-4911

Tel: (888)205-2311

TDD: (888)205-3223

Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/



European Society for Immunodeficiencies

1-3 rue de Chantepoulet

Geneva, CH 1211

Switzerland

Tel: 410229080484

Fax: 41229069140

Email: esid@kenes.com

Internet: http://www.esid.org



For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.

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