National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
It is possible that the main title of the report Colitis, Collagenous is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Related Disorders List
Information on the following diseases can be found in the Related Disorders section of this report:
- Lymphocytic Colitis (Microscopic Colitis, Lymphocytic Type)
- Celiac Sprue
- Crohn's Disease
- Associated Digestive Conditions (General)
Collagenous colitis is a rare digestive disorder that primarily affects females and typically becomes apparent during middle age. The disorder is characterized by inflammatory changes of the mucous membranes (mucosa) of the colon (colitis) and abnormal accumulation (excessive deposition) of the protein collagen beneath the surface (epithelial) layer of the mucosa (thickened subepithelial collagenous bands). The colon is the major portion of the large intestine. The medical literature often refers to collagenous colitis as a form of "microscopic colitis," since evidence of inflammation and other abnormalities may only be confirmed through microscopic (i.e., histologic) examination of multiple tissue samples.
Individuals with collagenous colitis typically experience episodes of chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea. In some instances, episodes may often occur at night (nocturnal diarrhea). Diarrheal episodes may be persistent or may occur at intervals (intermittent) over a period of weeks, months, or years. Other symptoms and findings that may occasionally be associated with such episodes include vague abdominal pain, abdominal swelling (distension), nausea, vomiting, and/or weight loss.
The exact cause of collagenous colitis is unknown. Possible immunological, environmental, genetic, and/or other factors are under investigation as potential causes of the disorder.
The main symptom associated with collagenous colitis is chronic, watery (secretory), nonbloody diarrhea. "Watery diarrhea" is frequently used synonymously with the term "secretory diarrhea." The latter refers to a large volume of watery diarrhea that may result from impaired absorption and/or increased secretion of water and certain electrolytes within body fluids. (Electrolytes are substances that split into electrically charged particles [ions] when dissolved in water. Such ions, including sodium, potassium, chloride, etc., play an essential role in regulating multiple bodily processes. For proper functioning, the concentrations of electrolytes must be maintained within certain limits; the body achieves this by moving electrolytes into and out of body cells.)
In many individuals with collagenous colitis, the onset of chronic diarrhea occurs gradually over time (insidious). However, in other cases, the onset may be sudden and abrupt (e.g., after an infection). Many affected individuals produce approximately four to nine watery stools daily. In addition, in some instances, episodes of diarrhea may often occur during the night (nocturnal diarrhea). In some affected individuals, diarrhea may be urgent, with an inability to control the passage of stool (fecal incontinence). In rare cases, the stools may contain an excessive amount of fat (steatorrhea).
Some individuals with collagenous colitis may have additional symptoms and findings in association with diarrheal episodes. These may include vague abdominal pain, cramping, abdominal swelling (distension), increased gas (flatulence), weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and/or fatigue. In some cases, severe attacks of chronic diarrhea may result in excessive loss of fluids from body tissues (dehydration) and excessive loss of certain electrolytes (e.g., sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium). Associated symptoms may include severe thirst, decreased sweating and urine production, dry tongue and lips, headache, cramps, pale dry skin, confusion, dizziness, falling blood pressure, and/or other potentially serious findings.
In individuals with collagenous colitis, episodes of diarrhea may be persistent or may occur at intervals (intermittent) over a period of weeks, months, or years. According to reports in the medical literature, most affected individuals have a chronic intermittent course, with many experiencing temporary periods with normal bowel function. In addition, some affected individuals may experience a long-term cessation of symptoms (remission), in some cases without having received treatment. However, relapses can occur.
In some cases, collagenous colitis may occur in association with certain other conditions, such as inflammation of joints (arthritis); certain inflammatory conditions of the eyes (uveitis); other digestive (gastrointestinal) diseases (e.g., celiac sprue); certain disorders in which the body's natural defenses against invading microorganisms mistakenly attack healthy tissue (autoimmune disorders, e.g., certain thyroid gland disorders); pernicious anemia; and/or other disorders. The implications of these findings are not fully understood. (For more information on celiac sprue, see the "Related Disorders" section below. For more information on pernicious anemia, choose "pernicious" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
The exact cause of collagenous colitis is unknown. Possible immunological, environmental, genetic, and/or other factors are under investigation as potential causes of the disorder.
Evidence suggests that certain pain-relieving (analgesic) drugs that also help to reduce joint inflammation (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), such as those widely used to relieve symptoms of arthritic disorders, may be a factor in causing or aggravating collagenous colitis in some cases. Some studies have demonstrated that significant numbers of individuals with collagenous colitis were regularly using NSAIDs at the time of their diagnosis (as compared to individuals without the disorder). However, although NSAIDs are commonly used in the general population, collagenous colitis rarely occurs. Therefore, researchers stress that additional factors, such as genetic predisposition, may play a role in causing the disorder.
Collagenous colitis has been reported in more than one family member (e.g., siblings) in a few cases, supporting the possibility of genetic susceptibility as a factor in some cases. A person who is genetically predisposed to a disorder carries a gene (or genes) for the disease, but it may not be expressed unless it is triggered or "activated" under certain circumstances, such as due to particular environmental factors (multifactorial inheritance).
Some researchers suggest that, in some cases, infection with certain invading bacteria may cause the initial injury to mucous membranes (mucosa) of the colon, leading to inflammation and abnormal collagen deposition. In addition, some speculate that the abnormal accumulation of collagen beneath the surface layer of the colon's mucous membranes (subepithelial collagen bands) occurs as part of the body's repair process in response to such chronic inflammation. Collagen, the body's major structural protein, forms an essential part of connective tissues. Others suggest that the thickened collagen bands may result due to a primary or local abnormality in the production of collagen (since the composition of the collagen found in the colon's mucous membranes is of a different type from that normally found in individuals unaffected by the disorder).
In addition, evidence suggests that improper bile salt absorption may, in some cases, injure cells in the colon's mucous membranes, potentially playing a role in causing collagenous colitis. Bile, a liquid secreted by the liver, includes bile salts, which play a role in breaking down and absorbing fats during digestion. According to reports in the medical literature, underlying bile salt malabsorption is common in individuals with collagenous colitis, with many benefiting from treatment with cholestyramine, a drug that acts on the liver's bile acids. (For more information on cholestyramine, see the "Standard Therapies" section below.)
As discussed above, in some cases, certain autoimmune disorders may occur in association with collagenous colitis. Autoimmunity occurs when the body's natural defenses against invading microorganisms mistakenly attack healthy tissue. As a result, some researchers speculate that autoimmune factors may also play some role in causing collagenous colitis. However, studies to date have not provided conclusive evidence supporting autoimmunity as a cause of the disorder.
Further studies are needed to determine the potential role(s) that immunological, environmental, genetic, and/or other factors may play in causing collagenous colitis.
Researchers suggest that the chronic, watery diarrhea associated with collagenous colitis may be directly related to inflammatory changes of the mucous membranes of the colon (rather than the thickened subepithelial collagen bands), with the diarrhea resulting from decreased intestinal absorption of water and electrolytes. As noted above, watery (secretory) diarrhea results when the intestines secrete more water and electrolytes than they absorb.
Collagenous colitis is a rare disorder that was originally reported in the medical literature in 1976 (Lindstrom CG). Estimates suggest that the disorder may be up to 10 times as common in females as males. Collagenous colitis generally becomes evident in middle age at approximately 60 years of age or greater. However, the disorder may develop at any age. According to reports in the medical literature, the disorder has been diagnosed in young children and in adults in their mid-80s. Several hundred cases of the disorder have been reported in the literature.
Symptoms of the following disorders may be similar to those of collagenous colitis. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis:
Lymphocytic colitis is a rare digestive disorder characterized by inflammatory changes of the mucous membranes of the colon (colitis), with abnormally increased numbers of certain white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the surface layer (epithelium) and underlying connective tissue layer (lamina propria). Associated symptoms include chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea; abdominal pain; and/or weight loss. Lymphocytic colitis, while sometimes apparent in children, usually occurs during middle age. The disorder is more common in females than males; however, the female-to-male ratio is much higher for collagenous colitis. The cause of lymphocytic colitis is unknown.
Lymphocytic colitis, like collagenous colitis, is often referred to as a form of "microscopic colitis," since evidence of inflammatory changes of the colon's mucous membranes may only be confirmed through microscopic examination of multiple tissue samples. According to reports in the medical literature, the main distinguishing feature between lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis is the fact that only the latter is characterized by abnormal collagen deposits beneath the surface layer. Some researchers indicate that lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis may in fact represent two manifestations or variants of the same disease process rather than distinct disease entities. Thus, the term "microscopic colitis" is sometimes used collectively or synonymously to describe lymphocytic and collagenous colitis. Further research is necessary to determine whether lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are indeed related.
Celiac sprue is also known as celiac disease or gluten-induced enteropathy. It is a digestive disorder in which consumption of gluten leads to abnormal changes of the mucosa of the small intestine, impairing its ability to properly absorb fats and additional nutrients during digestion (intestinal malabsorption). Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. The exact cause of celiac sprue is unknown. However, it is thought to result from the interactions of several genes (polygenic inheritance) possibly in association with particular nongenetic (environmental) factors (multifactorial inheritance). Associated symptoms may initially become apparent during childhood or adulthood.
During childhood, such symptoms do not occur until gluten is introduced into the diet, usually becoming evident at approximately six months to two years of age. Such symptoms and findings may include diarrhea; abnormally bulky, pale, frothy stools that contain increased levels of fat (steatorrhea); vitamin deficiencies; abdominal bloating; lack of appetite; weight loss or lack of weight gain; muscle wasting; irritability; and/or other abnormalities. When symptom onset occurs in adulthood, associated features may include diarrhea; abdominal cramping and bloating; steatorrhea; vitamin deficiencies; and/or weight loss.
Some adults may also develop associated muscle cramping; bone pain; exhaustion (lassitude); neurologic abnormalities, such as an impaired ability to control voluntary movements (ataxia) and sudden episodes of uncontrolled electrical activity of the brain (seizures); or other symptoms and findings. According to reports in the medical literature, celiac sprue has been described in individuals with collagenous or lymphocytic colitis, suggesting a possible association between the conditions. (For more information on this disorder, choose "celiac sprue" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of any portion of the digestive tract, particularly the lower region of the small intestine (ileum) and the large intestine. Chronic inflammation results in scarring and thickening of the intestinal wall and may lead to certain complications, including intestinal obstruction; the development of abnormal channels (fistulas) between the intestine and other regions; and chronic abscesses. Associated symptoms may include diarrhea that may be bloody, abdominal pain, loss of appetite (anorexia), weight loss, and rectal bleeding. Some may also have fever, joint inflammation (arthritis), inflammation of certain eye regions, an inflammatory condition of joints of the spine (ankylosing spondylitis), and/or other abnormalities.
Although the cause of Crohn's disease is unknown, researchers suspect that the disorder may result due to an exaggerated immune response to certain microorganisms or other foreign substances (antigens). In addition, it appears that genetic predisposition may play some role. (For more information on this disorder, choose "crohn*" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Giardiasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by the single-celled parasite (protozoa) Giardia lamblia. Many of those infected have no apparent symptoms (asymptomatic). In those who do develop symptoms, such features may include abdominal discomfort, cramping, and bloating; severe episodes of watery diarrhea; increased gas (flatulence); foul-smelling stools; nausea; and vomiting. Some may also have associated fever, chills, headache, and a general feeling of ill health (malaise). In some severe cases, affected individuals may develop intestinal malabsorption and weight loss. Some individuals may develop chronic giardiasis with or without prior acute illness. Associated symptoms may be continual or episodic. In severe cases, affected individuals may experience malabsorption, weight loss, growth retardation (in affected children), dehydration, and other complications. (For more information on this disorder, choose "giardiasis" as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
There are several other disorders that may be characterized by chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and/or other symptoms and findings similar to those associated with collagenous colitis. (For more information on these disorders, choose the specific disease name in question as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.)
Because the characteristic symptoms of collagenous colitis are also associated with many other disorders, several specialized tests may be needed to exclude other disorders and confirm a diagnosis of collagenous colitis. When an individual exhibits such symptoms as chronic, watery, nonbloody diarrhea, screening tests may often include x-ray procedures; blood, hormone (endocrine), and stool (fecal) evaluations; testing for microorganisms; and/or colonoscopy, visualization of the mucosal lining of the colon through the use of an illuminated instrument (endoscope). In individuals with collagenous colitis, such studies will usually provide normal results. In rare cases, blood tests may reveal a decrease in the levels of the oxygen-carrying compound (hemoglobin) in red blood cells (anemia). Rarely, fecal evaluations may reveal that the stools contain an excessive amount of fat (steatorrhea). In addition, in most cases, the digestive tract will appear normal by colonoscopy. Therefore, such testing usually helps to eliminate several other disorders in the process of obtaining a differential diagnosis.
According to the medical literature, to definitively obtain a diagnosis of collagenous colitis, further testing must include removal (biopsy) and microscopic evaluation of multiple tissue samples obtained from various portions of the different segments of the colon and the rectum. The biopsy samples may be retrieved during colonoscopy, which, as noted above, enables examination of the mucosal lining of the entire colon. The colon, the major portion of the large intestine, forms a large loop that consists of four segments: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. The rectum forms the lowest portion of the colon that joins with the anal canal.
In individuals with collagenous colitis, microscopic examination of such tissue samples may reveal injury of cells in the surface layer (epithelium) of the colon's mucous membranes (mucosa), with inflammatory changes of the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue layer (lamina propria) and abnormal deposition of the protein collagen beneath the surface layer (thickened subepithelial collagenous bands).
The treatment of collagenous colitis may require the coordinated efforts of a team of medical professionals, such as internists (or, in rare cases, pediatricians), physicians who diagnose and treat disorders of the digestive system (gastroenterologists), and/or other health care professionals.
Because studies are limited, further research is needed to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of various treatment options; to determine the most appropriate, optimal therapeutic measures; and to learn more about the variable severity and course of the disorder.
Because it is important to prevent the dehydration and electrolyte loss that may be associated with severe diarrhea, treatment is directed toward alleviating diarrhea. According to the medical literature, initial recommended treatment may include the use of antidiarrheal medications, such as loperamide, and the withdrawal of any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other medications that may play a role in causing the disorder. Loperamide is a drug that may alleviate diarrhea by acting directly on intestinal muscles to inhibit peristalsis, thereby diminishing fluid and electrolyte loss. (Peristalsis refers to the rhythmic contractions of involuntary muscle that propel food and waste materials through the digestive tract.)
If symptoms continue, some affected individuals may benefit from the use of certain anti-inflammatory medications known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) derivatives, such as sulfasalazine or other agents for those who cannot tolerate sulfasalazine (e.g., olsalazine).
If such therapy is not effective, physicians may recommend treatment with cholestyramine, particularly for those with bile acid malabsorption. Cholestyramine is a medication that acts on the liver's bile acids and serves to lower blood cholesterol levels.
Affected individuals who do not benefit from the use of such medications or who have extremely severe symptoms may receive therapy with certain corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone, prednisolone). Due to their potential adverse effects, such agents should be reserved for those without a response to the above agents (e.g., 5-ASA derivatives, cholestyramine). In addition, reports indicate that relapses often occur when such therapy is lowered in dosage or discontinued.
In some cases, if diarrhea is resistant (refractory) to the above therapies, treatment may be recommended with other agents that may be effective in some cases. Such medications may include certain antibiotics (e.g., metronidazole); the antidiarrheal agent bismuth subsalicylate (e.g., Pepto-Bismol); the corticosteroid budesonide, which has low "whole body" (systemic) effects as compared to certain other steroids; the synthetic antidiarrheal agent octreotide; or the immunosuppressant agent, methotrexate. Other immunosuppressants that may be useful include 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine.
In rare, severe cases, if drug therapies fail to relieve symptoms, surgical intervention may be recommended.
In refractory cases, experts advise that other potential causes of diarrhea must be considered and excluded (e.g., celiac disease, persistent NSAID use, chronic infection, etc.). Additional treatment for this disorder is symptomatic and supportive.
Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.
For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:
Tollfree: (800) 411-1222
TTY: (866) 411-1010
For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:
Beers MH, et al., eds. The Merck Manual. 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999:276.
Fauci AS, et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 1998:240.
Yamada T, et al., eds. Textbook of Gastroenterology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: J.B. Lippincott Company; 1995: 1808-10.
Sleisenger MH, et al., eds. Gastrointestinal disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis, management. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders Company; 1989:308-09.
Jarnerot G, et al. Familial occurrence of microscopic colitis: a report on five families. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001;36:959-62.
Shah RJ, et al. Usefulness of colonoscopy with biopsy in the evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:1091-95.
Abdo AA, et al. Familial microscopic colitis. Can J Gastroenterol. 2001;15:341-43.
Miquel Plaza J, et al. Collagenous colitis: an entity with diverse therapeutic options. Rev Clin Esp. 2000;200:602-04.
Bohr J, et al. Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: a clinical and histopathological review. Can J Gastroenterol. 2000;14:943-47.
Gillett HR, et al. Prevalence of celiac disease in collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. Can J Gastroenterol. 2000;14:919-21.
Bonderup OK, et al. Collagenous colitis: a long-term follow-up study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;11:493-95. Comment in: Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;11:477-79.
Marshall JK, et al. Lymphocytic and Collagenous Colitis: Medical Management. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol. 1999;2:127-33.
Tromm A, et al. Budesonide for the treatment of collagenous colitis: first results of a pilot trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:1871-75.
Lanyi B, et al. Therapy of prednisone-refractory collagenous colitis with budesonide. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1999;14:58-61.
Goff JS, et al. Collagenous colitis: histopathology and clinical course. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:57-60.
Rivera P, et al. Collagenous colitis: presentation of 12 cases. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997;20:484-89.
Aigner T, et al. Extracellular matrix composition and gene expression in collagenous colitis. Gastroenterology. 1997;113:136-43.
Mosnier JF, et al. Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis: an immunohistochemical study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:709-13.
Halaby IA, et al. Collagenous colitis: pathogenesis and management. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:573-78.
Bohr J, et al. Collagenous colitis: a retrospective study of clinical presentation and treatment in 163 patients. Gut. 1996;39:846-51.
Bohr J, et al. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in collagenous colitis. Gut. 1996; 39:73-76.
Bowling TE, et al. Interchange between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis in severe disease with autoimmune associations requiring colectomy: a case report. Gut. 1996; 38:788-91. Comment in: Gut. 1996;39:775.
Soulier C, et al. Four new cases of collagenous colitis with joint symptoms. Rev Rhum Engl Ed. 1996;63:593-99.
Bohr J, et al. Collagenous colitis in Orebro, Sweden, a epidemiological study 1984-1993. Gut. 1995;37:394-97.
Jarnerot G, et al. Collagenous colitis and fecal stream diversion. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:449-55.
Zins BJ, et al. Collagenous and lymphocytic colitis: subject review and therapeutic alternatives. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90:1394-400.
Zins BJ, et al. Collagenous colitis: mucosal biopsies and association with fecal leukocytes. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70:430-33.
Pimentel RR, et al. Collagenous colitis. A treatable disease with an elusive diagnosis. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:1400-04.
Jackson BK. Are collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis distinct syndromes? Dig Dis. 1995;13:301-11.
Katanuma A, et al. Collagenous colitis. Intern Med. 1995;34:195-98.
Geboes K. Collagenous and microscopic colitis: clinical importance. Neth J Med. 1994; 45:47-51.
Brady SK, et al. Collagenous colitis: a cause of chronic diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 1993;48:1081-84.
Gremse DA, et al. Collagenous colitis in children. Gastroenterology. 1993;104:906-09. Comment in: Gastroenterology. 1993;105:647-48.
Carpenter HA, et al. Sequential histologic evaluations in collagenous colitis. Correlations with disease behavior and sampling strategy. Dig Dis Sci. 1992;37:1903-09.
Giardiello FM, et al. Increased HLA A1 and diminished HLA A3 in lymphocytic colitis compared to controls and patients with collagenous colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1992;37:496-99.
Tanaka M, et al. Distribution of collagenous colitis: utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gut. 1992;33:65-70.
Armes J, et al. Collagenous colitis: jejunal and colorectal pathology. J Clin Pathol. 1992;45:784-87.
Riddell RH, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a possible cause of collagenous colitis: a case-control study. Gut. 1992;33:683-86.
Lewis FW, et al. Collagenous colitis with involvement of terminal ileum. Dig Dis Sci. 1991;36:1161-63.
Stampfl DA, et al. Collagenous colitis: pathophysiologic considerations. Dig Dis Sci. 1991;36:705-11.
Sloth H, et al. Collagenous colitis: a prospective trial of prednisolone in six patients. J Intern Med. 1991;229:443-46.
Gubbins GP, et al. Collagenous colitis: report of nine cases and review of the literature. South Med J. 1991;84:33-37.
van Tilburg et al. Familial occurrence of collagenous colitis. a report of two families. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1990;12:279-85.
Giardiello FM, et al. Collagenous colitis: physiologic and histopathologic studies in seven patients. Ann Intern Med. 1987;106:46-49.
Jessurun J, et al. Chronic colitis with thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer (collagenous colitis): histopathologic findings in 15 patients. Hum Pathol. 1987;18:839-48.
Rampton DS, et al. Is microscopic colitis due to bile-salt malabsorption? Dis Colon Rectum. 1987;30:950-52.
Lindstrom CG. Collagenous colitis with watery diarrhoea--a new entity? Pathol Eur. 1976;11:87-89.
Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America
386 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10016-7374
Digestive Disease National Coalition
507 Capitol Court, NE
Washington, DC 20002
NIH/National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive & Kidney Diseases
Office of Communications & Public Liaison
Bldg 31, Rm 9A06
31 Center Drive, MSC 2560
Bethesda, MD 20892-2560
International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
700 W. Virginia St., 201
Milwaukee, WI 53217
Gastro-Intestinal Research Foundation
70 East Lake Street
Chicago, IL 60601
Reach Out for Youth with Ileitis and Colitis, Inc.
PO Box 857
Bellmore, NY 11710
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
3 St. Andrews Place
London, NW1 4LB
For a Complete Report
This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.
The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.
It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report
This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.
For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Last Updated: 5/21/2008
Copyright 1989, 1991, 1998, 2001, 2002 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.