Farber's Disease

Farber's Disease

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important

It is possible that the main title of the report Farber's Disease is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • Acid Ceramidase Deficiency
  • Farber's Lipogranulomatosis

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Farber's disease is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. It is one of the diseases known as lysosomal storage diseases. These are inherited errors of metabolism that happen as the result of the lack or malfunction of a particular enzyme needed to break down complex chemical compounds in the structures within cells known as lysosomes. In this case, the enzyme that is missing is acid ceramidase. The deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of a substance known as ceramide and is associated with characteristic symptoms and progressive tissue damage, particularly in the joints, liver, lung, and nervous system.



Farber's disease is usually recognized by the presence of three symptoms: painful and progressively deformed joints, nodules under the skin, and progressive hoarseness. Other organ systems may also be involved. Farber's disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait.

Symptoms

Farber's disease is usually fairly readily diagnosed because the typical features are so characteristic. Symptoms usually appear between the ages of two weeks and four months. They may include painful swelling of the joints, particularly the interphalangeal, metacarpal, ankle, wrist, knee, and elbow; nodules under the skin in relation to the affected joints and over pressure points; and a hoarse cry that may progress to inability to produce speech sounds (aphonia).



Other features may include poor weight gain, intermittent fever, and respiratory difficulties. The disease is progressive. Liver and spleen often are moderately enlarged, and there may be moderate swelling of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Nervous system involvement includes diminished muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscular atrophy, seizures, and impaired vision. Eye examination may show a diffuse grayish opaqueness (opacification) of the retina with a cherry red center. Intelligence may or may not be normal.

Causes

Farber's disease is characterized by the body's inability to produce lysosomal acid ceramidase, causing painful and progressive deformity of joints. The affected gene has been traced to a location on chromosome 8 (8p22-p21.3) and has been designated the ASAH gene. The inheritance pattern is autosomal recessive.



Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from 1 through 22 and the sex chromosomes are designated X and Y. Males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. Each chromosome has a short arm designated "p" and a long arm designated "q". Chromosomes are further sub-divided into many bands that are numbered. For example, "chromosome 8p22-p21.3" refers to a region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between bands 21.3 and 22. The numbered bands specify the location of the thousands of genes that are present on each chromosome.



Genetic diseases are determined by the combination of genes for a particular trait that are on the chromosomes received from the father and the mother.



Recessive genetic disorders occur when an individual inherits the same abnormal gene for the same trait from each parent. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease, but usually will not show symptoms. The risk for two carrier parents to both pass the defective gene and, therefore, have an affected child is 25% with each pregnancy. The risk to have a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and females.



All individuals carry a few abnormal genes. Parents who are close relatives (consanguineous) have a higher chance than unrelated parents to both carry the same abnormal gene, which increases the risk to have children with a recessive genetic disorder.



Dominant genetic disorders occur when only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the disease. The abnormal gene can be inherited from either parent, or can be the result of a new mutation (gene change) in the affected individual. The risk of passing the abnormal gene from affected parent to offspring is 50% for each pregnancy regardless of the sex of the resulting child.

Affected Populations

Farber's disease affects males and females in equal numbers.

Standard Therapies

Treatment for Farber's disease is symptomatic and supportive. Corticosteroid drugs may provide some relief for joint pain. Tracheostomy may be necessary if breathing passages become blocked due to nodular growths. Cosmetic surgery may be useful for removal of growths in the facial area. Genetic counseling will be of benefit for patients and their families. Prenatal diagnosis of FD is possible during the fifteenth to sixteenth weeks of pregnancy through the use of amniocentesis (testing of cells taken from the fluid in the water sac surrounding the fetus).

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government website.



For information about clinical trials being conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:



Tollfree: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov



For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:

www.centerwatch.com



Research continues on the metabolic defect that may cause symptoms of Farber's disease. When this becomes better understood, scientists may be able to develop effective treatments.

References

TEXTBOOKS

Moser HW. Farber Disease. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:443.



Moser HW, Linke T, Fensome AH, et al. Molecular analysis of acid ceramidase deficiency in patients with Farber disease. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al., eds. The Metabolic Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. 8th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, NY; 2001:3573-88.



JOURNAL ARTICLES

Chandwani R, Kuwar AS. Farber's disease. Indian Pediatr. 2002 May;39(5):502.



Moritomo H, Nakase T, Maeda K, Murase T, Yoshikawa H. Surgical treatment of hand disorders in Farber's disease: a case report. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2002 May;27(3):503-7.



Vormoor J, EhlertK, Groll AH, et al. Successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Farber disease. J Pediatr. 2004;144:132-34.



Muramatsu T, Sakai N, Yanagihara I, et al. Mutation analysis of the acid ceramidase gene in Japanese patients with Farber disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002;25:585-92.



Moritomo H, Nakase T, Maeda K, et al. Surgical treatment of hand disorders in Farber's disease: a case report. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2002;27:503-07.



Bar J, Linke T, Ferlinz K, et al. Molecular analysis of acid ceramidase deficiency in patients with Farber disease. Hum Mutat. 2001;17:199-209.



Yaeger AM, Uhas KA, Coles CD, et al. Bone marrow transplantation for infantile ceramidase deficiency (Farber disease). Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000;26:357-63.



FROM THE INTERNET

Levade T. Farber lipogranulomatosis. Orphanet. February 2005. 1pp.

www.orpha.net



McKusick VA, ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM). The Johns Hopkins University. Farber Lipogranulomatosis. Entry Number; 228000: Last Edit Date; 4/21/2005.

Resources

CLIMB (Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases)

Climb Building

176 Nantwich Road

Crewe, CW2 6BG

United Kingdom

Tel: 4408452412173

Fax: 4408452412174

Email: enquiries@climb.org.uk

Internet: http://www.CLIMB.org.uk



Vaincre Les Maladies Lysosomales

2 Ter Avenue

Massy, 91300

France

Tel: 0169754030

Fax: 0160111583

Email: accueil@vml-asso.org

Internet: http://www.vml-asso.org



NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Information Clearinghouse

One AMS Circle

Bethesda, MD 20892-3675

USA

Tel: (301)495-4484

Fax: (301)718-6366

Tel: (877)226-4267

TDD: (301)565-2966

Email: NIAMSinfo@mail.nih.gov

Internet: http://www.niams.nih.gov/



Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126

Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126

Tel: (301)251-4925

Fax: (301)251-4911

Tel: (888)205-2311

TDD: (888)205-3223

Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/



Madisons Foundation

PO Box 241956

Los Angeles, CA 90024

Tel: (310)264-0826

Fax: (310)264-4766

Email: getinfo@madisonsfoundation.org

Internet: http://www.madisonsfoundation.org



Hide & Seek Foundation for Lysosomal Disease Research

6475 East Pacific Coast Highway Suite 466

Long Beach, CA 90803

Tel: (877)621-1122

Fax: (866)215-8850

Email: info@hideandseek.org

Internet: http://www.hideandseek.org



For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.

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