Prolactinoma

Prolactinoma

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

Important

It is possible that the main title of the report Prolactinoma is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.

Synonyms

  • amenorrhea-galactorrhea, nonpuerperal
  • Forbes-Albright syndrome
  • galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome
  • nonpuerperal galactorrhea

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

A prolactinoma is a benign tumor of the pituitary gland (adenoma) that produces an excessive amount of the hormone prolactin. In women, hyperprolactinemia is characterized by irregular menstrual periods (amenorrhea), infertility and production of breast milk in women who are not pregnant (galactorrhea). The most common symptom in men is impotence.

Symptoms

Many of the symptoms of prolactinoma are caused by an excessive amount of prolactin in the blood (hyperprolactinemia). In women, prolactinoma is characterized by irregular menstrual periods (amenorrhea), infertility and production of breast milk in women who are not pregnant (galactorrhea). Some women experience diminished sexual desire or painful intercourse. The most common symptom in men is impotence.



Some symptoms such as headaches and vision abnormalities are caused by pressure from the pituitary tumor on other tissues and the optic chiasm.

Causes

The cause of pituitary tumors is unknown. Most pituitary tumors are sporadic and not associated with genetic factors that are inherited or can be passed on to children.

Affected Populations

Pituitary tumors that produce enough prolactin to affect health occur in approximately 14 out of 100,000 people.

Standard Therapies

Prolactinoma is treated with medications that act like dopamine (dopamine agonists) such as bromocriptine and cabergoline because dopamine inhibits prolactin secretion. These medications reduce the size of the tumor and reduce the amount of prolactin secretion in approximately 80% of patients. Surgery may be recommended if medical therapy is not effective. Pituitary tumors recur after surgery in some affected individuals.

Investigational Therapies

Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. All studies receiving U.S. Government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site.



For information about clinical trials being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office:



Tollfree: (800) 411-1222

TTY: (866) 411-1010

Email: prpl@cc.nih.gov



For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, contact:

www.centerwatch.com

References

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Schlechte JA. Long-term management of prolactinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(8):2861-5.



Valdemarsson S. Macroprolactinemia. Risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement in hyperprolactinemia. Lakartidningen. 2004;101(6):458-65.



Serri O, Chik CL, Ur E, Ezzat S. Diagnosis and management of hyperprolactinemia. CMAJ. 2003;169(6):575-81.



Biller BM, Luciano A, Crosignani PG, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia. J Reprod Med. 1999;44(12 Suppl):1075-84.



Conner P, Fried G. Hyperprolactinemia; etiology, diagnosis and treatment alternatives. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1998;77(3):249-62.



Davies PH. Drug-related hyperprolactinaemia. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 1997;16(2):83-94.



Blackwell RE. Hyperprolactinemia. Evaluation and management. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1992;21(1):105-24.



INTERNET

Prolactinoma. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/prolact/prolact.aspx. Updated May 2009. Accessed March 27, 2012.

Resources

National Women's Health Resource Center

157 Broad Street,

Suite 106

Red Bank, NJ 07701

Tel: (732)530-3425

Fax: (732)530-3347

Tel: (877)986-9472

Email: gcassidy@healthywomen.org

Internet: http://www.healthywomen.org



National Women's Health Network

1413 K Street, NW

4th Floor

Washington, DC 20005

USA

Tel: (202)682-2640

Fax: (202)682-2648

Email: nwhn@nwhn.org

Internet: http://www.womenshealthnetwork.org



Pituitary Network Association

P.O. Box 1958

Thousand Oaks, CA 91358

USA

Tel: (805)499-9973

Fax: (805)480-0633

Email: info@pituitary.org

Internet: http://www.pituitary.org



Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126

Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126

Tel: (301)251-4925

Fax: (301)251-4911

Tel: (888)205-2311

TDD: (888)205-3223

Internet: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/



Pituitary Foundation

PO Box 1944

Bristol, BS99 2UB

United Kingdom

Tel: 08454500376

Fax: 01179330910

Tel: 08454500375

Email: helpline@pituitary.org.uk

Internet: http://www.pituitary.org.uk



For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.

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