Medicines and nutritional therapy have failed to
manage severe symptoms.
does not respond to medical treatment within 4 days (or sooner in some cases).
Holes form in the large intestine.
(This is called perforation.)
You have colon cancer or a significantly increased
risk of cancer. (This risk is found by
biopsies.) Or you have a narrowing in the intestine that can't
be told apart from cancer. You may need surgery even if you don't have symptoms of active
Severe, disabling complications occur outside the colon.
But many complications do not respond to surgery.
You have severe bleeding
that requires ongoing blood transfusions.
Slow growth or other serious
complications occur in children.
People may choose to have surgery to improve their quality of
life, cure ulcerative colitis, or prevent colon
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