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National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
- Susac syndrome
Susac's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main problems: impaired brain function (encephalopathy), partial or complete blockage (occlusion) of the arteries that supply blood to the retina (branch retinal artery occlusion, or BRAO), and inner ear disease (hearing loss, most notably).
Three main forms of Susac's syndrome have become apparent. In one form, encephalopathy is the main problem. In the second form, BRAO and hearing loss are the main problems, and there is little or no brain disease. In the third form, encephalopathy is the main problem in the beginning, but recurrent episodes of BRAO and hearing loss become the main problem after the encephalopathy goes away.
The encephalopathic form of Susac's syndrome often resolves spontaneously (often going away within 1 years), even without treatment (self-limited); the other forms tend to follow a more prolonged, more chronic course (3-10 years, or more).
Although considered rare, Susac's syndrome is being recognized more often worldwide and its true frequency in the general population is unknown. This is because the disorder may be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis.
Susac's syndrome is an autoimmune disease---specifically, an autoimmune endotheliopathy. "Autoimmune" means that a person's own immune system is mistakenly attacking one's own healthy tissue. An "endotheliopathy" is any disorder that involves injury to the endothelium, which is the thin layer of cells that line the inner walls of blood vessels. In Susac's syndrome, the person's own immune system is mistakenly attacking the endothelial lining of the smallest blood vessels (the capillaries, venules and arterioles) in the brain, retina, and inner ear. When the endothelial cells become injured, they tend to swell, and this endothelial cell swelling plays a key role in the partial or complete occlusion (blockage) of the tiny vessels in the brain, retina and inner ear. This blockage results in decreased blood flow through the vessels and, therefore, decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain, retina, and inner ear---causing these three organs to suffer.
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association, Inc.
22100 Gratiot Ave.
East Detroit, MI 48021
Better Hearing Institute
1444 I Street NW
Washington, D.C. 20005
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
American Academy of Audiology
11730 Plaza America Drive, Suite 300
Reston, VA 20190
Hearing Loss Association of America
7910 Woodmont Avenue
Bethesda, MD 20814
For a Complete Report
This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.® (NORD). Cigna members can access the complete report by logging into myCigna.com. For non-Cigna members, a copy of the complete report can be obtained for a small fee by visiting the NORD website. The complete report contains additional information including symptoms, causes, affected population, related disorders, standard and investigational treatments (if available), and references from medical literature. For a full-text version of this topic, see http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdblist.html.
The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians.
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This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.
For additional information and assistance about rare disorders, please contact the National Organization for Rare Disorders at P.O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968; phone (203) 744-0100; web site www.rarediseases.org or email email@example.com
Last Updated: 9/5/2012
Copyright 2003, 2004, 2009, 2012 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.