Note: If a chemical has been
swallowed that may be a poison or may cause burning in
the throat and
esophagus, call your local Poison Control Center or the National Poison Control Hotline (1-800-222-1222) immediately for information on treatment. When you call
the Poison Control Center, have the chemical container with you, so you can
read the content label to the Poison Control staff member. The Poison Control
Center can help determine what steps to take next.
Most chemical burns
of the skin are treated first by rinsing (flushing) the chemical off your body
with a large amount of room temperature water, but not all chemicals are
treated this way. It is important to treat the burn correctly to avoid further
Chemical burns rinsed with water
Flush the area for at least 20 minutes.
Do not use a hard spray of water, because
it can damage the burned area.
Have the person with the burn remove
the chemical substance if he or she is able.
Put on gloves to
protect yourself from the chemical, if you need to remove it.
As you flush the area, take off any clothing or
jewelry that has the chemical on it.
If the area still has a
burning sensation after 20 minutes, flush the area again with flowing water for
10 to 15 minutes.
Chemical burns not rinsed with water
burns are made worse if rinsed (flushed) with water.
Carbolic acid or phenol
does not mix with water, so use isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol first to flush the
chemical off the skin and then flush with water. If alcohol is not available,
flush with a large amount of water. Do not flush the eye with
Sulfuric acid is flushed with a
mild, soapy solution if the burns are not severe. Sulfuric acid feels hot when
water is added to the acid, but it is better to flush the area and not leave
the acid on the skin.
Hydrofluoric acid is
flushed with a bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) solution. (Use a small amount
of water to make solution.) Then flush with a large amount of water. Burns from
this acid may not show at first, so flush the area even if a burn is not seen.
Do not flush the eye with a baking soda solution.
Dry powders, such as dry lime, are brushed
away first, because adding water can make a liquid that burns. After the powder
is brushed away, flush with water for 20 minutes.
Metal compounds are covered with mineral
The most important first aid for a chemical in the eye is to immediately flush the substance out
with large amounts of water to reduce the chance of serious eye damage. For any
chemical burn to the eye, see the topic Burns to the Eye.
evaluation by your doctor is necessary, take the chemical
container with you.
ByHealthwise Staff Primary Medical ReviewerWilliam H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine Adam Husney, MD - Family Medicine Specialist Medical ReviewerH. Michael O'Connor, MD - Emergency Medicine Martin J. Gabica, MD - Family Medicine
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