Testicular injury or
failure, either present at birth (congenital) or associated with radiation or
toxic chemical exposure.
Cancer treatment with certain kinds of
chemotherapy or radiation.
attack sperm and that also may be present in semen. Sperm antibodies sometimes
develop when a man's sperm has been exposed to his immune system (outside of
the testicles). This may happen after a vasectomy, an infection, or an injury
to the testicles.footnote 2
Drug use (some
prescription medicines, and marijuana and tobacco
American Society for Reproductive Medicine and Society for Male Reproduction and Urology (2008). Evaluation of the azoospermic male. Fertility and Sterility, 90(Suppl 5): S74–S77.
Fritz MA, Speroff L (2011). Male infertility. In Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 8th ed., pp. 1249–1292. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
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