Swimmer's ear (otitis externa) is a painful inflammation and infection of the ear canal. It occurs when the protective film that covers the ear canal (lipid layer) is removed. This causes the ear canal to look red and swollen. The ear canal may be narrower than normal and is tender when the outside of the ear is gently pulled up and back.
Swimmer's ear may occur when water, sand, dirt, or other debris gets into the ear canal. It gets its name because it often occurs when excess water enters the ear canal. If you've had swimmer's ear in the past, you are more likely to get it again.
A rare but serious infection called malignant external otitis can develop if bacteria invade the bones inside the ear canal and spread to the base of the skull. But not many people get this infection. It's mainly seen in older adults who also have diabetes, people who have HIV, and children who have impaired immune systems. But it can be fatal. Symptoms include ear pain with sudden facial paralysis, hoarseness, and throat pain. Antibiotics are used to treat this infection.
Other causes of inflammation or infection of the ear canal include:
You are more likely to get swimmer's ear if:
Symptoms can include itching, pain, and a feeling of fullness in the ear. Your ear canal may be swollen. You may have moderate to severe pain, drainage, or hearing loss. The pain is worse when you chew, press on the "tag" in front of the ear, or wiggle your earlobe. This is different from the pain of a middle ear infection (acute otitis media).
You may be able to prevent swimmer's ear. Symptoms often get better or go away with home treatment.
Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:
You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.
Vertigo is the feeling that you or your surroundings are moving when there is no actual movement. It may feel like spinning, whirling, or tilting. Vertigo may make you sick to your stomach, and you may have trouble standing, walking, or keeping your balance.
Symptoms of an infection in the ear canal (swimmer's ear) may include:
Symptoms of an inner ear infection may include:
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in adults are:
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:
Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.
Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.
Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.
Some home treatment can help mild swimmer's ear. Try the following tips to help mild swimmer's ear.
Gently rinse your ear using a bulb syringe and a mixture of equal parts white vinegar and rubbing alcohol. Make sure the flushing solution is body temperature. Inserting cool or hot fluids in the ear can make you dizzy.
If your ear is itchy, try nonprescription swimmer's eardrops, such as Swim-Ear. Use them before and after you swim or get your ears wet. Read and follow all instructions on the label, and learn how to insert eardrops safely.
To ease ear pain, apply a warm washcloth or a heating pad set on low. There may be some drainage when the heat melts earwax.
They have no proven benefit in the removal of earwax or other objects in the ear. And they can cause serious injury.
If you are concerned that your symptoms are more serious, you may need to check with your doctor.
Call a doctor if any of the following occur during self-care at home:
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