Most babies and older children have several mild infections of the respiratory system each year.
The upper respiratory system includes the nose, mouth, sinuses, and throat. A child with an upper respiratory infection may feel uncomfortable and sound very congested. Other symptoms include:
The lower respiratory system includes the bronchial tubes and lungs. These types of problems are less common than ones in the upper respiratory system. But they are usually more severe. They are more likely to need a doctor's care.
Symptoms of lower respiratory system infections include:
Respiratory problems may have many causes.
Viral infections cause most upper respiratory infections. Sore throats, colds, croup, and influenza (flu) are common viral illnesses in babies and older children. These infections are usually mild and go away in 4 to 10 days. But sometimes they can be severe.
Home treatment can help relieve the child's symptoms. The infection usually improves on its own within a week and is gone within 14 days.
Antibiotics aren't used to treat viral illnesses. They don't change the course of viral infections. Using an antibiotic when it's not needed exposes your child to the risks of an allergic reaction and antibiotic side effects. These side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, and yeast infections. Antibiotics also may kill helpful bacteria and encourage the growth of dangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Viral lower respiratory system infections may be mild, similar to upper respiratory system infections. An example of a possibly serious viral infection is bronchiolitis. Up to 10% of babies and children with viral infections of the lower respiratory system, such as those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), may have severe blockage of the air passages. They need treatment in a hospital.
The most common sites for bacterial infections in the upper respiratory system are the sinuses and throat. A sinus infection is an example of this type of infection.
Bacterial pneumonia may follow a viral illness as a secondary infection. Or it can appear as the first sign of a lower respiratory infection. In babies and small children, the first sign of infection often is rapid breathing, crankiness, being less active than usual, and poor feeding. Antibiotics work well against bacterial infections.
Tuberculosis is a less common bacterial infection of the lower respiratory system.
Allergies are a common cause of respiratory problems. The symptoms in children include:
Babies and small children usually don't have asthma. But the number of new cases of asthma increases with age.
Besides asthma, allergies, and infection, other possible causes of respiratory problems in children include:
Babies and children younger than age 3 may have more symptoms with respiratory problems than older children. And they may become more ill. For this reason, younger children need to be watched more closely. What type of symptoms your child has and how severe they are will help you know if your child needs to see a doctor.
Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:
You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.
Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:
Symptoms of serious illness may include:
If you're not sure if a child's fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:
With a high fever:
With a moderate fever:
With a mild fever:
Symptoms of difficulty breathing can range from mild to severe. For example:
Symptoms of difficulty breathing in a baby or young child can range from mild to severe. For example:
Severe trouble breathing means:
Moderate trouble breathing means:
Mild trouble breathing means:
A baby that is extremely sick:
A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):
Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.
Oral (by mouth), ear, or rectal temperature
A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5° F (0.3° C) to 1° F (0.6° C) lower than an oral temperature.
Armpit (axillary) temperature
Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.
You can use a small rubber bulb (called an aspirating bulb) to remove mucus from your baby's nose or mouth when a cold or allergies make it hard for the baby to eat, sleep, or breathe.
To use the bulb:
Don't do this more than 5 or 6 times a day. Doing it too often can make the congestion worse and can also cause the lining of the nose to swell or bleed.
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:
Sudden drooling and trouble swallowing can be signs of a serious problem called epiglottitis. This problem can happen at any age.
The epiglottis is a flap of tissue at the back of the throat that you can't see when you look in the mouth. When you swallow, it closes to keep food and fluids out of the tube (trachea) that leads to the lungs. If the epiglottis becomes inflamed or infected, it can swell and quickly block the airway. This makes it very hard to breathe.
The symptoms start suddenly. A person with epiglottitis is likely to seem very sick, have a fever, drool, and have trouble breathing, swallowing, and making sounds. In the case of a child, you may notice the child trying to sit up and lean forward with his or her jaw forward, because it's easier to breathe in this position.
Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.
Based on your answers, you need emergency care.
Call 911 or other emergency services now.
Sometimes people don't want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren't serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.
Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.
Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.
Most children have 7 to 10 mild upper respiratory infections each year. Your child may feel uncomfortable and have a stuffy nose. The infection is usually better within a week and is usually gone within 14 days.
Here are some things you can do to ease mild symptoms and help your child feel better.
Keep the room comfortable for you and your child. A hot, dry environment will make a stuffy nose worse.
Try a vaporizer or humidifier to add moisture to the room. Warm or cool mist may help relieve symptoms. Follow all cleaning instructions and precautions for the machine.
Here are some precautions to take when using decongestants.
Call a doctor if any of the following occur during self-care at home:
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