Skip to main navigation Skip to main content Skip to footer For Medicare For Providers For Brokers For Employers Español For Individuals & Families: For Individuals & Families Medical Dental Other Supplemental Explore coverage through work How to Buy Health Insurance Types of Dental Insurance Open Enrollment vs. Special Enrollment See all topics Shop for Medicare plans Member Guide Find a Doctor Log in to myCigna
Home Knowledge Center Wellness Library Sexual and Reproductive Organs

Sexual and Reproductive Organs

Learn about your sexual and reproductive organ health

Some sexual and reproductive organ problems are fairly common, like a vaginal yeast infection in women or an enlarged prostate in men. Problems like these may only need home treatment. But other problems, like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), can be more serious and need a doctor's care. Certain tests, such as a follicle-stimulating hormone test, can help you be aware of your sexual and reproductive organ health. Our topics can connect you with information on sexual and reproductive organ symptoms, tests, and treatments.

Start learning about your sexual and reproductive organ health with these topics:

  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
  • Semen Analysis
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Hysterectomy
  • Enlarged Prostate: Should I Take Medicine?
Health Topics
  • Abdominal Pain, Age 12 and Older
  • Abnormal Pap Test
  • Abnormal Pap Test While Pregnant
  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding
  • Abortion
  • Abortion: Emotional Recovery
  • Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
  • Adenomyosis
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Pregnancy
  • Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Bartholin Gland Cyst
  • Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting
  • Bed Rest for Preterm Labor
  • Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
  • Bioidentical Hormones
  • Birth Control
  • Birth Control for Teens
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Mini-Pill
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Pill
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Ring
  • Birth Control Pills: Missed or Skipped Periods
  • Birth Control: How to Use a Diaphragm
  • Birth Control: How to Use the Patch
  • Birth Control: How to Use the Ring
  • Birth Control: Myths About Sex and Pregnancy
  • Birth Control: Pros and Cons of Hormonal Methods
  • Boric Acid for Vaginal Yeast Infection
  • Braxton Hicks Contractions
  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer in Men (Male Breast Cancer)
  • Breast Cancer Screening
  • Breast Cancer Types
  • Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent
  • Breast Cancer: Lymph Node Surgery for Staging Cancer
  • Breast Changes During Pregnancy
  • Breast Engorgement
  • Breast Enlargement
  • Breast Implant Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
  • Breast Lumps
  • Breast Pain (Mastalgia)
  • Breast Problems
  • Breast Reduction
  • Breast-Conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy) for Breast Cancer
  • Breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding After a C-Section
  • Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery
  • Breastfeeding and Your Milk Supply
  • Breastfeeding as Birth Control
  • Breastfeeding During Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding Multiple Infants
  • Breastfeeding Positions
  • Breastfeeding With Inverted Nipples
  • Breastfeeding Your Newborn and an Older Child
  • Breastfeeding: Baby's Poor Weight Gain
  • Breastfeeding: Choosing a Breast Pump
  • Breastfeeding: Exercise and Weight Loss
  • Breastfeeding: How to Use a Breast Pump
  • Breastfeeding: Sore Nipples
  • Breastfeeding: Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs
  • Breastfeeding: Waking Your Baby
  • Breastfeeding: Weaning a Toddler
  • Cancer Treatment and Infertility
  • Carbon Dioxide Laser Surgery for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer Screening
  • Cervical Cap for Birth Control
  • Cervical Cell Changes on a Pap Test
  • Cervical Cerclage
  • Cervical Insufficiency
  • Cervical Polyps
  • Cesarean Section
  • Charting Your Basal Body Temperature
  • Chlamydia
  • Choosing a Prosthesis After Breast Cancer Surgery
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Circumcision
  • Cleaning Your Young Child's Natural (Uncircumcised) Penis
  • Combining Breastfeeding and Bottle-Feeding
  • Cone Biopsy (Conization) for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Congenital Hydrocele
  • Congenital Syphilis
  • Contraceptive Sponge for Birth Control
  • Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer
  • Cryotherapy for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Cryotherapy for Genital Warts
  • Dense Breasts
  • Diaphragm for Birth Control
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
  • Dilation and Evacuation (D&E)
  • Eclampsia (Seizures) and Preeclampsia
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Effects of Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Exposure
  • Electrocautery for Genital Warts
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Emotions and Menopause
  • Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer
  • Endometrial Ablation
  • Endometriosis
  • Enlarged Prostate: Bathroom Tips
  • Enlarged Prostate: Herbal Therapy
  • Epididymitis
  • Erection Problems (Erectile Dysfunction)
  • Erection Problems: Relationships and Life Events Matter
  • Exercises After Mastectomy
  • Fallopian Tube Procedures for Infertility
  • Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer
  • Female Genital Problems and Injuries
  • Female Sexual Problems
  • Fibrocystic Breasts
  • Find Your Ovulation Day
  • First-Trimester Exams and Tests
  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome
  • Functional Ovarian Cysts
  • Gamete and Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT and ZIFT)
  • Genital Herpes
  • Genital Injuries: Urinary Problems
  • Genital Warts (Human Papillomavirus)
  • Getting Pregnant After Stopping Birth Control
  • Gonorrhea
  • Heavy Menstrual Periods
  • HELLP Syndrome
  • High-Risk Sexual Behavior
  • Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer (Androgen Deprivation Therapy, or ADT)
  • Hormone Treatment for Breast Cancer
  • How Pregnancy (Conception) Occurs
  • How to Take Birth Control Pills
  • Hydrocele
  • Hypospadias
  • Hysterectomy
  • Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer
  • Hysterectomy for Ovarian Cancer
  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Induction Abortion
  • Infertility
  • Infertility Tests
  • Infertility Treatment for Women With PCOS
  • Infertility: Emotional and Social Support
  • Infertility: Ethical and Legal Concerns
  • Infertility: Factors That Affect Treatment Success
  • Infertility: Problems With Fallopian Tubes
  • Infertility: Problems With Ovulation
  • Infertility: Problems With the Man's Reproductive System
  • Infertility: Problems With the Uterus and Cervix
  • Infertility: Questions to Ask About Assisted Reproductive Technology
  • Infertility: Questions to Ask About Medicine or Hormone Treatment
  • Infertility: Setting Limits on Testing
  • Infertility: Setting Limits on Treatment
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer
  • Inguinal Hernia
  • Inguinal Hernia: Surgery in Adults
  • Insemination for Infertility
  • Insemination Procedures
  • Interactive Tool: What Is Your Due Date?
  • Interactive Tool: When Are You Most Fertile?
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  • Intrauterine Device (IUD) for Birth Control
  • IUD Insertion
  • IUD Removal
  • Kegel Exercises
  • Klinefelter Syndrome
  • Labor and Delivery
  • Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (Ovarian Diathermy) for PCOS
  • Laparoscopic Surgery
  • Laparoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis
  • Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation
  • Laser Surgery for Genital Warts
  • Leriche's Syndrome
  • Levonorgestrel (LNg) IUD
  • Light to Heavy Vaginal Bleeding
  • Living With More Than One Health Problem
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) for Genital Warts
  • Lymph Node Removal Surgery (Lymphadenectomy) for Endometrial Cancer
  • Male Genital Problems and Injuries
  • Mastectomy (Removal of the Breast) for Breast Cancer
  • Mastitis While Breastfeeding
  • Medical Abortion Care
  • Medical and Nonmedical Options for Gender Affirmation
  • Medicines That Can Cause Changes in Menstrual Bleeding
  • Medicines That May Cause Vaginal Symptoms
  • Menarche
  • Menopause and Perimenopause
  • Menopause and Your Risk for Other Health Concerns
  • Menstrual Cramps
  • Menstrual Diary to Monitor Premenstrual Symptoms
  • Menstruation: Not Having a Period by Age 15
  • Milk Oversupply
  • Miscarriage
  • Missed or Irregular Periods
  • Missed Periods and Endurance Training
  • Molar Pregnancy
  • Multiple Pregnancy: Twins or More
  • My Birth Plan
  • Myomectomy
  • Nipple Discharge
  • Nipple Shields for Breastfeeding Problems
  • Normal Menstrual Cycle
  • Normal Vaginal Discharge
  • Object in the Vagina
  • Orchiectomy
  • Orchiectomy for Prostate Cancer
  • Orchiopexy for Undescended Testicle
  • Other Health Problems Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Oxytocin
  • Parkinson's Disease and Sexual Problems
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Tubo-Ovarian Abscess
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Penile Implants for Erection Problems
  • Personal Stories About Choosing Birth Control Methods
  • Peyronie's Disease
  • Placenta Previa
  • Placental Abruption
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Poor Let-Down While Breastfeeding
  • Postpartum: First 6 Weeks After Childbirth
  • Preeclampsia
  • Preeclampsia: Expectant Management
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy: Prenatal Visit Schedule
  • Pregnancy: Ways to Find Your Due Date
  • Pregnancy-Related Problems
  • Premature Ejaculation
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  • Preterm Labor
  • Preterm Labor and Short Cervix
  • Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes (pPROM)
  • Preventing Mastitis
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
  • Problems After Delivery of Your Baby
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic
  • Prostatitis
  • Psychotherapy for Erection Problems
  • Pudendal Neuralgia
  • Quick Tips: Successful Breastfeeding
  • Radiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
  • Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
  • Radical Prostatectomy
  • Rashes or Sores in the Groin
  • Recurrent Vaginal Yeast Infections
  • Relactation
  • Relieving Menstrual Pain
  • Repair of Rectocele or Enterocele
  • Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Testicular Cancer
  • Safer Sex
  • Saw Palmetto
  • Sensual Exercises for Erection Problems
  • Sex After Childbirth
  • Sex During Pregnancy
  • Sex Therapy for Erection Problems
  • Sexual Abuse: Signs and Symptoms
  • Sexual Problems: How to Talk With Your Partner
  • Sexuality and Physical Changes With Aging
  • Sexuality While Breastfeeding
  • Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections: How a Male Genital Exam Is Done
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections: Symptoms in Women
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections: Treatment
  • Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Smoking: Sexual and Reproductive Problems
  • Spermatocele (Epididymal Cyst)
  • Spermicide for Birth Control
  • Sports Hernia
  • Stages of Syphilis
  • Storing Breast Milk
  • Surgery for Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Surgery for Ovarian Cysts
  • Surgical Abortion Care
  • Surgical Removal of Genital Warts by Excision
  • Symptoms of Pelvic Infection
  • Symptoms of Pregnancy
  • Syphilis
  • Tension-Free Vaginal Tape for Stress Incontinence in Women
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer Screening
  • Testicular Prosthesis
  • Testosterone
  • Thinking About Bilateral Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
  • Thinking About Oophorectomy
  • Third-Trimester Exams and Tests
  • Tissue Flap Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome
  • Transurethral Incision of the Prostate (TUIP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Transurethral Microwave Therapy (TUMT) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Transurethral Prostatectomy for Prostatitis
  • Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Tubal Ligation Reversal
  • Tubal Ligation Surgery
  • Undescended Testicle
  • Urinary Problems and Prostate Cancer
  • Urinary Symptoms After an Injury in Children
  • Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)
  • Uterine Fibroids
  • Vacuum Aspiration for Abortion
  • Vacuum Devices for Erection Problems
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC)
  • Vaginal Closure Surgery (Vaginal Obliteration)
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Vaginal Fistula
  • Vaginal Pessaries
  • Vaginal Prolapse Surgery
  • Vaginal Rashes and Sores
  • Vaginal Yeast Infection During Pregnancy
  • Vaginal Yeast Infections
  • Vaginitis
  • Varicocele Repair Surgery
  • Vasectomy
  • Vasectomy Reversal
  • VBAC: Labor Induction
  • VBAC: Participation During Birth
  • VBAC: Uterine Scar Rupture
  • Vulvodynia
  • What to Do About Missed or Skipped Birth Control Pills
Medical Tests
  • Antisperm Antibody Test
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Tests
  • Biopsy of Genital Warts (Human Papillomavirus)
  • Breast Biopsy
  • Breast Exam
  • Breast Self-Examination
  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125) Test
  • Chlamydia Tests
  • Colposcopy
  • Contraction Stress Test
  • Digital Rectal Examination
  • Endometrial Biopsy
  • Estrogen Test
  • Fertility Awareness
  • Fetal Fibronectin Test
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Test
  • Gonorrhea Test
  • Herpes Tests
  • Home Pregnancy Tests
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test of the Cervix
  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
  • Hysteroscopy
  • KOH Preparation
  • Laparoscopy
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Test
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Abdomen
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast
  • Mammogram
  • Pap Test
  • Pelvic Exam
  • Pelvic Ultrasound
  • Progesterone Test
  • Prostate Biopsy
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
  • Semen Analysis
  • Sonohysterogram
  • Sperm Penetration Tests
  • Syphilis Tests
  • Testicular Biopsy
  • Testicular Examination and Testicular Self-Examination
  • Testicular Scan
  • Testicular Ultrasound
  • Testosterone Test
  • Tests for Erection Problems
  • Vaginal Self-Examination (VSE)
  • Vaginal Wet Mount
Make a Wise Decision
  • Prostate Cancer: Should I Choose Active Surveillance?
  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: Should I Have a Hysterectomy?
  • Breast Cancer Risk: Should I Have a BRCA Gene Test?
  • Breast Cancer Screening and Dense Breasts: What Are My Options?
  • Breast Cancer Screening: When Should I Start Having Mammograms?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?
  • Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?
  • Breastfeeding: Should I Breastfeed My Baby?
  • Circumcision: Should I Keep My Son's Penis Natural?
  • Endometriosis: Should I Have a Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy?
  • Endometriosis: Should I Use Hormone Therapy?
  • Enlarged Prostate: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Enlarged Prostate: Should I Take Medicine?
  • Erection Problems: Should I Take Medicine?
  • Erection Problems: Should I Try Inserted or Injected Medicines?
  • Fertility Problems: Should I Be Tested?
  • Fertility Problems: Should I Have a Tubal Procedure or In Vitro Fertilization?
  • HPV: Should I Get the Vaccine?
  • HPV: Should My Child Get the Vaccine?
  • Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy: Should I Use Estrogen Therapy (ET)?
  • Hysterectomy: Should I Also Have My Ovaries Removed?
  • Infertility: Should I Have Treatment?
  • Inguinal Hernia: Should I Have Surgery Now, or Should I Wait?
  • Menopause: Should I Use Hormone Therapy (HT)?
  • Miscarriage: Should I Have Treatment to Complete a Miscarriage?
  • Ovarian Cancer: Should I Have My Ovaries Removed to Prevent Ovarian Cancer?
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Prostate Cancer Screening: Should I Have a PSA Test?
  • Prostate Cancer: Should I Have Radiation or Surgery for Localized Prostate Cancer?
  • STI Testing: Should I Get Tested for a Sexually Transmitted Infection?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Have Uterine Fibroid Embolization?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Use GnRH-A Therapy?
Take Action
  • Menopause: Managing Hot Flashes
  • Menstrual Cramps: Relieving Pain

This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use. Learn how we develop our content.

© 1995-2022 Healthwise, Incorporated. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.

<cipublic-spinner variant="large"><span>Loading…</span></cipublic-spinner>

Page Footer

I want to...

Get an ID card File a claim View my claims and EOBs Check coverage under my plan See prescription drug list Find an in-network doctor, dentist, or facility Find a form Find 1095-B tax form information View the Cigna Glossary Contact Cigna

Audiences

Individuals and Families Medicare Employers Brokers Providers

Secure Member Sites

myCigna member portal Health Care Provider portal Cigna for Employers Client Resource Portal Cigna for Brokers

Cigna Company Information

About Cigna Company Profile Careers Newsroom Investors Suppliers Third Party Administrators International Evernorth

 Cigna. All rights reserved.

Privacy Legal Product Disclosures Cigna Company Names Customer Rights Accessibility Non-Discrimination Notice [PDF] Language Assistance [PDF] Report Fraud Sitemap

Disclaimer

Individual and family medical and dental insurance plans are insured by Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company (CHLIC), Cigna HealthCare of Arizona, Inc., Cigna HealthCare of Illinois, Inc., and Cigna HealthCare of North Carolina, Inc. Group health insurance and health benefit plans are insured or administered by CHLIC, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company (CGLIC), or their affiliates (see a listing of the legal entities  that insure or administer group HMO, dental HMO, and other products or services in your state). Accidental Injury, Critical Illness, and Hospital Care plans or insurance policies are distributed exclusively by or through operating subsidiaries of Cigna Corporation, are administered by Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company, and are insured by either (i) Cigna Health and Life Insurance Company (Bloomfield, CT); (ii) Life Insurance Company of North America (“LINA”) (Philadelphia, PA); or (iii) New York Life Group Insurance Company of NY (“NYLGICNY”) (New York, NY), formerly known as Cigna Life Insurance Company of New York. The Cigna name, logo, and other Cigna marks are owned by Cigna Intellectual Property, Inc. LINA and NYLGICNY are not affiliates of Cigna.

All insurance policies and group benefit plans contain exclusions and limitations. For availability, costs and complete details of coverage, contact a licensed agent or Cigna sales representative. This website is not intended for residents of New Mexico.

Selecting these links will take you away from Cigna.com to another website, which may be a non-Cigna website. Cigna may not control the content or links of non-Cigna websites. Details