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Women's Health

Learn about women's health

There is so much to know about the woman's body. And as your body changes with time, you are bound to have questions you never thought of before.

You can come here to explore a range of women's health issues. Get help with decisions and common concerns on topics such as:

  • Abnormal Pap Test.
  • Birth Control.
  • Fertility Problems.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Labor and Delivery.
  • Postpartum: First 6 Weeks After Childbirth.
  • Menopause: Should I Use Hormone Therapy (HT)?.
Health Topics
  • Abnormal Pap Test
  • Abnormal Pap Test While Pregnant
  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  • Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding
  • Abortion
  • Abortion: Emotional Recovery
  • Acupressure for Morning Sickness
  • Adenomyosis
  • Adult Immunization Schedule
  • After Childbirth: Coping and Adjusting
  • After Childbirth: Pelvic Bone Problems
  • After Childbirth: Urination and Bowel Problems
  • Alcohol or Drug Use During Pregnancy
  • Anemia During Pregnancy
  • Antihistamines for Morning Sickness
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Pregnancy
  • Artificial Rupture of the Membranes
  • Asthma During Pregnancy
  • Baby Blues
  • Back Pain During Pregnancy
  • Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Bartholin Gland Cyst
  • Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting
  • Bed Rest for Preterm Labor
  • Bed Rest in Pregnancy
  • Bioidentical Hormones
  • Birth Control
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Implant
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Mini-Pill
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Patch
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Pill
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Ring
  • Birth Control Hormones: The Shot
  • Birth Control Pills: Missed or Skipped Periods
  • Birth Control: How to Use a Diaphragm
  • Birth Control: How to Use the Patch
  • Birth Control: How to Use the Ring
  • Birth Control: Myths About Sex and Pregnancy
  • Birth Control: Pros and Cons of Hormonal Methods
  • Black Cohosh for Menopause Symptoms
  • Bladder Pain Syndrome (Interstitial Cystitis)
  • Boric Acid for Vaginal Yeast Infection
  • Braxton Hicks Contractions
  • Breast Cancer
  • Breast Cancer Screening
  • Breast Cancer Types
  • Breast Cancer, Metastatic or Recurrent
  • Breast Cancer: Lymph Node Surgery for Staging Cancer
  • Breast Changes During Pregnancy
  • Breast Engorgement
  • Breast Enlargement
  • Breast Implant Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
  • Breast Lumps
  • Breast Pain (Mastalgia)
  • Breast Problems
  • Breast Reduction
  • Breast-Conserving Surgery (Lumpectomy) for Breast Cancer
  • Breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding After a C-Section
  • Breastfeeding After Breast Surgery
  • Breastfeeding and Your Milk Supply
  • Breastfeeding as Birth Control
  • Breastfeeding at Work
  • Breastfeeding During Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding Multiple Infants
  • Breastfeeding Positions
  • Breastfeeding When You Have Diabetes
  • Breastfeeding With Inverted Nipples
  • Breastfeeding Your Newborn and an Older Child
  • Breastfeeding: Baby's Poor Weight Gain
  • Breastfeeding: Choosing a Breast Pump
  • Breastfeeding: Exercise and Weight Loss
  • Breastfeeding: How to Use a Breast Pump
  • Breastfeeding: Sore Nipples
  • Breastfeeding: Using Medicines Safely
  • Breathing Techniques for Childbirth
  • Breech Position and Breech Birth
  • Caffeine During Pregnancy
  • Cancer During Pregnancy
  • Cancer Treatment and Infertility
  • Carbon Dioxide Laser Surgery for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer Screening
  • Cervical Cap for Birth Control
  • Cervical Cell Changes on a Pap Test
  • Cervical Cerclage
  • Cervical Effacement and Dilatation
  • Cervical Insufficiency
  • Cervical Polyps
  • Cesarean Section
  • Charting Your Basal Body Temperature
  • Childbirth Afterpains
  • Childbirth Classes
  • Childbirth Planning: How to Partner With Your Doctor
  • Childbirth: Epidurals
  • Childbirth: Is Planning a C-Section a Good Choice?
  • Childbirth: Laboring in Water and Water Delivery
  • Childbirth: Opioid Pain Medicines
  • Childbirth: Perineal Massage Before Labor
  • Childbirth: Pudendal Block
  • Childbirth: Strep Infections During Delivery
  • Chlamydia
  • Cholestasis of Pregnancy
  • Choosing a Prosthesis After Breast Cancer Surgery
  • Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Cone Biopsy (Conization) for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Contraceptive Sponge for Birth Control
  • Contractions During Pregnancy: What to Expect
  • Cryotherapy for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Dense Breasts
  • Dental Care During Pregnancy
  • Depression During Pregnancy
  • Diabetes: Preparing for Pregnancy
  • Diaphragm for Birth Control
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
  • Dilation and Evacuation (D&E)
  • Domestic Abuse
  • Domestic Violence
  • Domestic Violence: Checklist of Things to Take When You Leave
  • Domestic Violence: Getting a Protective Order
  • Doulas and Support During Childbirth
  • Eclampsia (Seizures) and Preeclampsia
  • Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Effects of Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Exposure
  • Emergency Contraception
  • Emotions and Menopause
  • Endometrial (Uterine) Cancer
  • Endometrial Ablation
  • Endometriosis
  • Episiotomy and Perineal Tears
  • Exercise During Pregnancy
  • Exercises After Mastectomy
  • External Cephalic Version for Breech Position
  • Fallopian Tube Procedures for Infertility
  • Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer
  • Fatigue During Pregnancy
  • Female Condoms
  • Female Genital Problems and Injuries
  • Female Sexual Problems
  • Fetal Monitoring During Labor
  • Fever During Pregnancy
  • Fibrocystic Breasts
  • Find Your Ovulation Day
  • First-Trimester Exams and Tests
  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome
  • Functional Ovarian Cysts
  • Gamete and Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT and ZIFT)
  • Genital Warts (Human Papillomavirus)
  • Gestational Diabetes
  • Getting Enough Calcium and Vitamin D
  • Getting Pregnant After Stopping Birth Control
  • Ginger for Morning Sickness
  • Groin Pain
  • Health Screening: Finding Health Problems Early
  • Healthy Habits to Prevent Osteoporosis
  • Heart Attack and Stroke in Women: Reducing Your Risk
  • Heartburn During Pregnancy
  • Heavy Menstrual Periods
  • HELLP Syndrome
  • High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy
  • High-Risk Pregnancy
  • Hormonal Birth Control: Risk of Blood Clots
  • Hormone Treatment for Breast Cancer
  • Hot Flashes and Menopause
  • How Birth Control Methods Prevent Pregnancy
  • How Pregnancy (Conception) Occurs
  • How to Take Birth Control Pills
  • Hysterectomy
  • Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer
  • Hysterectomy for Ovarian Cancer
  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Indirect Coombs Test
  • Induction Abortion
  • Infertility
  • Infertility Tests
  • Infertility Treatment for Women With PCOS
  • Infertility: Emotional and Social Support
  • Infertility: Problems With Fallopian Tubes
  • Infertility: Problems With Ovulation
  • Infertility: Problems With the Uterus and Cervix
  • Infertility: Questions to Ask About Medicine or Hormone Treatment
  • Infertility: Setting Limits on Testing
  • Inflammatory Breast Cancer
  • Insemination for Infertility
  • Insemination Procedures
  • Interactive Tool: From Embryo to Baby in 9 Months
  • Interactive Tool: What Is Your Due Date?
  • Interactive Tool: When Are You Most Fertile?
  • Intermittent Catheterization for Women
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  • Intrauterine Device (IUD) for Birth Control
  • IUD Insertion
  • IUD Removal
  • Labor and Delivery
  • Labor Induction and Augmentation
  • Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (Ovarian Diathermy) for PCOS
  • Laparoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis
  • Laparoscopic Tubal Ligation
  • Leg Cramps During Pregnancy
  • Levonorgestrel (LNg) IUD
  • Light to Heavy Vaginal Bleeding
  • Local Anesthesia for Childbirth
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP) for Abnormal Cervical Cell Changes
  • Low Amniotic Fluid
  • Low Bone Density
  • Low-Lying Placenta Versus Placenta Previa
  • Lymph Node Removal Surgery (Lymphadenectomy) for Endometrial Cancer
  • Managing Emotional Changes During Pregnancy
  • Massage Therapy During Pregnancy
  • Mastectomy (Removal of the Breast) for Breast Cancer
  • Mastitis While Breastfeeding
  • Medical Abortion Care
  • Medicines for Bone Loss
  • Medicines That Can Cause Changes in Menstrual Bleeding
  • Medicines That May Cause Vaginal Symptoms
  • Menarche
  • Menopause and Perimenopause
  • Menopause and Your Risk for Other Health Concerns
  • Menstrual Cramps
  • Menstrual Cups
  • Menstrual Diary to Monitor Premenstrual Symptoms
  • Menstruation: Not Having a Period by Age 15
  • Military Sexual Trauma
  • Milk Oversupply
  • Miscarriage
  • Missed or Irregular Periods
  • Missed Periods and Endurance Training
  • Molar Pregnancy
  • Multiple Pregnancy: Twins or More
  • My Birth Plan
  • Myomectomy
  • Nipple Discharge
  • Nipple Shields for Breastfeeding Problems
  • Normal Menstrual Cycle
  • Normal Vaginal Discharge
  • Nutrition During Pregnancy
  • Obesity and Pregnancy
  • Object in the Vagina
  • Obstetric Panel
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoporosis Risk Factors
  • Osteoporosis Risk in Younger Women
  • Osteoporosis Screening
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Overactive Bladder
  • Partner Support During Pregnancy
  • Passing Tissue During Pregnancy
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Tubo-Ovarian Abscess
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse
  • Physical Abuse
  • Placenta Previa
  • Placental Abruption
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • Polyhydramnios
  • Poor Let-Down While Breastfeeding
  • Postpartum Bleeding
  • Postpartum Depression
  • Postpartum: First 6 Weeks After Childbirth
  • Post-Term Pregnancy
  • Postural Management for Breech Position
  • Preeclampsia
  • Preeclampsia: Checkups and Monitoring
  • Preeclampsia: Creatinine Clearance Test
  • Preeclampsia: Expectant Management
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy After Age 35
  • Pregnancy After Bariatric Surgery
  • Pregnancy and Chronic High Blood Pressure
  • Pregnancy: Belly, Pelvic, and Back Pain
  • Pregnancy: Blood Clots
  • Pregnancy: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Pregnancy: Changes in Bowel Habits
  • Pregnancy: Chemicals, Cosmetics, and Radiation
  • Pregnancy: Choosing a Health Professional
  • Pregnancy: Deciding Where to Deliver
  • Pregnancy: Dropping (Lightening)
  • Pregnancy: First Prenatal Visit
  • Pregnancy: Hair Changes
  • Pregnancy: Healthy Weight Gain
  • Pregnancy: Hemorrhoids and Constipation
  • Pregnancy: Hot Tub and Sauna Use
  • Pregnancy: Kick Counts
  • Pregnancy: Nosebleeds and Bleeding Gums
  • Pregnancy: Pelvic and Hip Pain
  • Pregnancy: Prenatal Visit Schedule
  • Pregnancy: Relationship Changes
  • Pregnancy: Stretch Marks, Itching, and Skin Changes
  • Pregnancy: Vaginal Discharge and Leaking Fluid
  • Pregnancy: Varicose Veins
  • Pregnancy: Vegetarian Diet
  • Pregnancy: Ways to Find Your Due Date
  • Pregnancy: Work and School Issues
  • Pregnancy-Related Problems
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
  • Preparing for a Healthy Pregnancy
  • Preterm Labor
  • Preterm Labor and Short Cervix
  • Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes (pPROM)
  • Preventing Mastitis
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
  • Problems After Delivery of Your Baby
  • Quick Tips: Healthy Pregnancy Habits
  • Quick Tips: Successful Breastfeeding
  • Quitting Smoking and Avoiding Smoke During Pregnancy
  • Radiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
  • Recurrent Vaginal Yeast Infections
  • Reducing Cancer Risk When You Are BRCA-Positive
  • Relactation
  • Relieving Menstrual Pain
  • Repair of Bladder Prolapse (Cystocele) or Urethra Prolapse (Urethrocele)
  • Repair of Rectocele or Enterocele
  • Retropubic Suspension Surgery
  • Rh Sensitization During Pregnancy
  • Safer Sex
  • Safety Plan: Preparing to Leave a Violent Relationship
  • Screening for Gestational Diabetes
  • Second-Trimester Exams and Tests
  • Sex After Childbirth
  • Sex During Pregnancy
  • Sex Therapy for Sexual Problems in Women
  • Sexual Abuse or Assault (Rape)
  • Sexuality While Breastfeeding
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections: Symptoms in Women
  • Sleep Problems During Pregnancy
  • Sleep, Rest, and Breastfeeding
  • Smoking: Problems With Pregnancy
  • Soy for Menopause Symptoms
  • Spinal Block for Childbirth
  • Staying Safe: After You Leave a Violent Relationship
  • Staying Safe: If You Are in a Violent Relationship
  • Stillbirth
  • Storing Breast Milk
  • Subchorionic Hemorrhage
  • Surgery for Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Surgery for Ovarian Cysts
  • Surgical Abortion Care
  • Swelling During Pregnancy
  • Symptoms of Pelvic Infection
  • Symptoms of Pregnancy
  • Tension-Free Vaginal Tape for Stress Incontinence in Women
  • Testosterone
  • Thinking About Bilateral Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer
  • Thinking About Oophorectomy
  • Third-Trimester Exams and Tests
  • Tips for Pregnant Parents
  • Tissue Flap Surgery for Breast Reconstruction
  • Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy
  • Travel During Pregnancy
  • Tubal Implants Procedure
  • Tubal Ligation Reversal
  • Tubal Ligation Surgery
  • Types of Domestic Abuse
  • Umbilical Cord Blood Donation and Private Banking
  • Unwanted Hair in Women
  • Urethral Sling Surgery
  • Urinary Incontinence in Women
  • Urinary Incontinence: Keeping a Daily Record
  • Urinary Problems During Pregnancy
  • Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)
  • Uterine Fibroids
  • Vacuum Aspiration for Abortion
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC)
  • Vaginal Bleeding During Pregnancy
  • Vaginal Closure Surgery (Vaginal Obliteration)
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Vaginal Fistula
  • Vaginal Pessaries
  • Vaginal Prolapse Surgery
  • Vaginal Rashes and Sores
  • Vaginal Yeast Infection During Pregnancy
  • Vaginal Yeast Infections
  • Vaginitis
  • VBAC: Labor Induction
  • VBAC: Participation During Birth
  • VBAC: Uterine Scar Rupture
  • Violent Behavior
  • Vitamin B6 for Morning Sickness
  • Vulvodynia
  • Week 12 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 16 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 20 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 24 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 28 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 32 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 36 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 40 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • Week 8 of Pregnancy: What's Going On Inside
  • What Increases Your Risk of Becoming a Victim of Domestic Abuse or Violence?
  • What to Do About Missed or Skipped Birth Control Pills
  • Your Baby's Movements During Pregnancy
Medical Tests
  • Bacterial Vaginosis Tests
  • Bladder Stress Test in Women
  • Bone Density
  • Breast Biopsy
  • Breast Cancer (BRCA) Gene Test
  • Breast Exam
  • Breast Self-Examination
  • Breast Ultrasound
  • Chlamydia Tests
  • Colposcopy
  • Contraction Stress Test
  • Coombs Test
  • Endometrial Biopsy
  • Estrogen Test
  • Fertility Awareness
  • Fetal Fibronectin Test
  • Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Test
  • Home Pregnancy Tests
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test of the Cervix
  • Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
  • Hysteroscopy
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Test
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast
  • Mammogram
  • Nonstress Test
  • Pap Test
  • Pelvic Exam
  • Progesterone Test
  • Prolactin Blood Test
  • Quad Screening for Birth Defects
  • Sonohysterogram
  • Sperm Penetration Tests
  • Testosterone Test
  • Vaginal Self-Examination (VSE)
  • Vaginal Wet Mount
  • Vitamin D Test
Make a Wise Decision
  • Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: Should I Have a Hysterectomy?
  • Breast Cancer Screening and Dense Breasts: What Are My Options?
  • Breast Cancer Screening: When Should I Start Having Mammograms?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast Reconstruction After a Mastectomy?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Breast-Conserving Surgery or a Mastectomy?
  • Breast Cancer: Should I Have Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer?
  • Breast Cancer: What Should I Do if I'm at High Risk?
  • Breastfeeding: Should I Breastfeed My Baby?
  • Depression: Should I Take Antidepressants While I'm Pregnant?
  • Endometriosis: Should I Have a Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy?
  • Endometriosis: Should I Use Hormone Therapy?
  • Fertility Problems: Should I Be Tested?
  • Fertility Problems: Should I Have a Tubal Procedure or In Vitro Fertilization?
  • Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy: Should I Use Estrogen Therapy (ET)?
  • Hysterectomy: Should I Also Have My Ovaries Removed?
  • Menopause: Should I Use Hormone Therapy (HT)?
  • Miscarriage: Should I Have Treatment to Complete a Miscarriage?
  • Multiple Pregnancy: Should I Consider a Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction?
  • Osteoporosis: Should I Have a Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Test?
  • Osteoporosis: Should I Take Bisphosphonate Medicines?
  • Ovarian Cancer: Should I Have My Ovaries Removed to Prevent Ovarian Cancer?
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Pregnancy: Should I Have an Early Fetal Ultrasound?
  • Pregnancy: Should I Have an Epidural During Childbirth?
  • Pregnancy: Should I Try Vaginal Birth After a Past C-Section (VBAC)?
  • Stress Incontinence in Women: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Have Surgery?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Have Uterine Fibroid Embolization?
  • Uterine Fibroids: Should I Use GnRH-A Therapy?
Take Action
  • Breastfeeding: Planning Ahead
  • Depression: Managing Postpartum Depression
  • Gestational Diabetes: Checking Your Blood Sugar
  • Gestational Diabetes: Counting Carbs
  • Gestational Diabetes: Dealing With Low Blood Sugar
  • Gestational Diabetes: Giving Yourself Insulin Shots
  • Healthy Eating: Taking Calcium and Vitamin D
  • Lymphedema: Managing Lymphedema
  • Menopause: Managing Hot Flashes
  • Menstrual Cramps: Relieving Pain
  • Nutrition While Breastfeeding
  • Pregnancy and Diabetes: Planning for Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy: Dealing With Morning Sickness

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